Sri Lankan Junglefowl

Known variously as the Ceylon junglefowl, Lafayette’s junglefowl, and Lafayette’s tiger-fowl, the Sri Lankan junglefowl (Gallus lafayettii, also spelled Gallus lafayettii) is a member of the Galliformes bird order that is endemic to Sri Lanka, where it serves as the country’s national bird. The Sri Lankan junglefowl (Gallus lafayettii) is a member of the Galliformes bird order that is endemic to Sri Lanka, where it serves as the country’s national bird. He or she is a close relative of the red Junglefowl, which was domesticated from which the chicken derived its name. He or she is a close relative of the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus), which is wild junglefowl that was domesticated from which the chicken derived its name.

Scientific Classification

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Piciformes
Family: Megalaimidae
Genus: Psilopogon
Species: P. Rubricapillus
Binomial Name: Psilopogon Rubricapillus

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Facts About Sri Lankan Junglefowl

Known variously as the Ceylon junglefowl, Lafayette’s junglefowl, and Lafayette’s tiger-fowl, the Sri Lankan junglefowl (Gallus lafayettii, also spelled Gallus lafayettii) is a member of the Galliformes bird order that is endemic to Sri Lanka, where it serves as the country’s national bird. He or she is a close relative of the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus), which is wild junglefowl that was domesticated from which the chicken derived its name. A whole-genome molecular study, on the other hand, indicates that the Sri Lankan junglefowl and the grey junglefowl are genetically sister species, rather than being genetically related to the red junglefowl. In contrast, the Sri Lankan junglefowl and the red junglefowl diverged approximately 2.8 million years ago, whereas the time of divergence between the Sri Lankan junglefowl and the grey junglefowl occurred approximately 1.8 million years ago.

Introgressive hybridization from Sri Lanka junglefowl has also been observed in domestic chickens, which is consistent with the theory of introgression. The specific name of the Sri Lankan junglefowl is derived from the French aristocrat Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, who was born in the island nation.

Description

In the same way that many other junglefowl are, the Sri Lankan junglefowl is markedly sexually dimorphic; the male is significantly larger than the female, with more vibrant plumage and wattle and comb that are greatly exaggerated.

The male Sri Lankan junglefowl is approximately 66–72 cm (26–28 in) in length and 790–1,140 g (1.74–2.51 lb) in weight, and he resembles a large, muscular rooster in appearance and temperament. The male has orange-red body plumage, with dark purple to black wings and tail, and a dark purple to black tail. The golden feathers of the mane, which descend from the top of the head to the base of the spine, contrast with the bare red skin and wattles on the face. The comb is red with a yellow center, and it has a long handle. The cock, like the green junglefowl, does not have eclipse plumage, as does the ostrich. 

At only 35 cm (14 inches) in length and 510–645 g (1.124–1.422 pounds) in weight, the female is much smaller than the male. She has dull brown plumage with white patterning on the lower belly and breast, which is ideal camouflage for a nesting bird.

Classification

Gallus is a genus of four bird species, each of which has its own unique appearance. Other members of the genus G. gallus include the red junglefowl (G. gallus), the grey junglefowl (G. sonneratii), and the green junglefowl (G. sonneratii) (G. varius).

It is most closely related to the grey junglefowl, though its male resembles the red junglefowl in terms of physical characteristics. Female Sri Lanka junglefowl is very similar to female grey junglefowl in appearance and behavior. Green junglefowl and Sri Lankan junglefowl are both island species that have evolved alongside their similarly stranded island predators and competitors, just as the green junglefowl has. The Sri Lankan junglefowl’s long evolutionary history has included a variety of anti-predator behaviors and foraging strategies that are unlike anything else on the planet.

Habitat

It can be found in a variety of forest and scrub habitats, and it is frequently seen in places such as Kitulgala, Yala, Wippattu, and Sinharaja. Throughout the world, this species can be found from sea level to elevations of 2000 meters.

Behaviour

Sri Lankan jungle fowl, like other jungle fowl, are primarily terrestrial in their diet. Foraging for food takes up a large portion of their time, with them scratching the ground in search of various seeds, fallen fruit, and insects.
Females lay two to four eggs in a nest, which can be found on the forest floor in steep hill country or in the nests of other birds and squirrels that have abandoned their nests. Male Sri Lankan junglefowl, like their counterparts in the grey and green junglefowl species, is involved in nest protection and chick-rearing.

Reproduction

It is best described as facultative polyandry in this species’ reproductive strategy, in which a single female is typically associated with two or three males who form a sort of pride. These two gentlemen are most likely brothers. When the female and the alpha male of the pride form a pair, they build a nest high above the ground.
Despite the fact that her eggs are highly variable in color, they are typically cream in color with a yellow or pink tint. Spots that are purple or brownish in color are common.

Occasionally, a female will lay red eggs or eggs with blotches on them.

Sri Lankan Female Junglefowl | Endemic Birds | Sri Lanka

During the nesting season, the hen incubates her eggs while the alpha male keeps watching over her nest from a nearby perch on a nearby branch. A pair of beta males will remain in close proximity to each other and guard the nesting territory against intruders or potential predators, such as other beta males, snakes, and mongooses. Sri Lankan junglefowl is unique among the junglefowl in that their incubation period can be as short as 20 days, as opposed to the 21–26 days required by the green junglefowl to complete their incubation period.

A constant diet of live food is required for the chicks, which is typically insects and isopods such as sowbugs and pillbugs. Land crab juveniles, in particular, are critical to the growth and survival of Sri Lankan junglefowl, which is both juveniles and subadults at this stage of their development. As a result of being kept in captivity, this species is particularly susceptible to a poultry disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella pullorum as well as other bacterial diseases that affect domestic poultry. The chicks, and to a slightly lesser extent the adults, are unable to consume proteins and fats derived from plants, due to a genetic defect. [a citation is required] It is not possible to meet their dietary needs with commercially processed food materials. As a result, they are extremely difficult to come by in captivity.

Sound

The male Ceylon Junglefowl makes a series of short calls, “kreeu, kreeu, kreeuu,” while foraging on the ground. It also utters a high-pitched rooster-like crow “cor-cor-chow” at the crack of dawn, usually from a branch of a tree. Several “kwikkuk, kwikkukkuk” are uttered by the female. During the breeding season, the male is more vocal, making advertising calls and making a variety of sounds during displays, both with the female and with rivals, as well as in territorial defense.

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